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Default (Failure) Phobos-Grunt and YingHuo-1 atop Zenit-2 on November 8/9, 2011
by SiberianTiger 04-15-2011, 03:04 PM

In November, 2011 Russia will initiate a first national interplanetary probe's mission in 21st century. It will become second such endeavour after disastrous Mars-96 mission in 1996 (1st and the only before today attempt of an interplanetary mission in post-Soviet Russia) and begin 27 years after launch of the last successful Russian interplanetary mission (VeGa-1, VeGa-2 spacecraft).

Phobos-Grunt (a.k.a. Phobos-Soil) spacecraft will perform studies of Phobos, Mars and space surrounding Mars after entering Areocentric orbit in 2012, perform landing in a selected point at Phobos, ground sampling and in situ studies in 2013, and return the sample back to Earth in middle of 2014.



Piggybacked with the main spacecraft, is Chinese YingHou-1 probe. Yinghuo-1's scientific objectives are focused mostly on Mars' upper atmosphere and space environment. Among all its objectives and planned measurements, the most unusual and groundbreaking experiment is one in which Phobos-Grunt and Yinghuo-1 will work in tandem to measure the structure of Mars' ionosphere. The two spacecraft will point at each other, and Phobos-Grunt will broadcast a signal through Mars' ionosphere to an "occultation receiver" on Yinghuo-1. Wu et al. explain the experiment this way: Yinghuo-1 is going to "receive the signals at two frequencies (833 MHz / 416.5 MHz) from the Russian Phobos-Grunt probe and to measure the signal amplitudes and carrier phases at these two frequencies, then to obtain the electron density profile and total electron content of the Martian ionosphere by on-the-ground post-processing."





Launch location:

Baikonur Launch pad no. 45/1 45В°56'35.87"N, 63В°39'10.83"E

Mission Timers:

Launch
Time Zone
Australia - Sydney/AEST
Baikonur / UTC+6
Moscow / UTC+4/
Universal / UTC
Washington / EST
Launch time (Primary):
07:16:03.145 a.m.
02:16:03.145
00:16:03.145
20:16:03.145
3:16:03.145 p.m.
on:
Nov. 9, 2011
Nov. 9, 2011
Nov. 9, 2011
Nov. 8, 2011
Nov. 8, 2011
*Click here to restart the timer* Phobos-Grunt Launch

Subsequent events (updated when new data becomes available):

Mission events
Time Zone
Australia - Sydney/AEST
Moscow / UTC+4/
Universal / UTC
Washington / EST
Spacecraft separation:
07:27.27.747 a.m.
00:27.27.747
20:27.27.747
3:27.27.747 p.m.
on:
Nov. 9, 2011
Nov. 9, 2011
Nov. 8, 2011
Nov. 8, 2011
*Click here to restart the timer* Phobos-Grunt Separation from LV
1st Main Engine Burn:
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on:
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1st Main Engine Shutdown (Intermediate orbit insertion):
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on:
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APT Jettison:
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on:
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2nd Main Engine Burn:
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on:
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2nd Main Engine Shutdown (Trans-Mars Ejection):
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on:
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Live Coverage Of The Launch:

PAYLOAD 1

Phobos-Soil (a.k.a. Phobos-Grunt) interplanetary probe



Spacecraft Overview

The spacecraft's journey to Mars is scheduled to take about ten months. It will then spend several months studying the planet and its moons from orbit, before landing on Phobos. The current timeline is for arrival in October 2012 and landing in February 2013.

The soil sample collection will begin immediately after the lander has touched down on Phobos. Normal collection will last 2–7 days. An emergency mode exists for the case of communications breakdown, which enables the lander to automatically launch the return rocket to deliver the samples to Earth. The samples, which can be up to 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) in diameter, will be collected by a robotic arm. At the end of the arm, there is a pipe-shaped tool which splits to form a claw. The tool contains a piston which will push the sample into a cylindrical container. A light-sensitive photo-diode will confirm whether material collection was successful and will also allow visual inspection of the digging area. The sample extraction device should perform 15 to 20 scoops yielding a total of 3 to 5.5 ounces (85 to 160 g) of soil.

The return rocket is situated on top of the lander. It will need to accelerate to 35 km/h (22 mph) to escape Phobos' gravity. In order to avoid harming the experiments remaining at the lander, the return vehicle will only ignite its engine once the vehicle has been vaulted to a safe height by springs. It will then begin maneuvers for the eventual trip to Earth, where it is expected to arrive in August 2014.

After the departure of the return vehicle, the lander's experiments will continue in-situ on Phobos' surface for a year. To conserve power, mission control will turn these on and off in a precise sequence. The robotic arm will place more samples in a chamber that will heat it and analyze its spectra. This analysis might determine the presence of easily vaporized substances, such as water.

The landing site that has been chosen is a region from 5В°S to 5В°N, 230В° to 235В°W.

Characteristics
Phobos-Grunt
Parts diagram:
Customer:
  • Roscosmos, Russian Academy of Science
Prime contractor:
  • Lavochkin Association (NPO)
Prime scientific supervisor:
  • Institute of Space Research of Russian Academy of Science (IKI RAN)
Platform:
  • Navigator
Mass at Separation:
  • 13 505 kg
Scientific payload Mass:
  • 50 kg
Mass of delivered samples:
  • 0.2 kg
Total mission span:
  • ~ 34 months
Communication band:
  • X
Attitude keeping:
  • 3-axis
Main Propulsion System:
  • Dry Mass: less than 735 kg
  • Max Propellants Mass: 7 150 kg
  • Engine Thrust: 19 777 N
  • ISP: 3 268.7 m/s
Transfer-Orbital Module:
  • Mass: less than 550 kg
  • Solar Arrays Area: 10 m^2
  • Attitude keeping precision: 0.5 deg
  • Angular speed of stabilization: 0.005 deg/s
  • Transmitter power: 40 W
  • Propulsion system dry mass: 180 kg
  • Max propellants mass: 1 050 kg
  • Engine Thrust: 1 530 N
  • ISP: 2 982 m/s
Returned Module:
  • Dry Mass: 139 kg
  • Propellants mass: 135 kg
  • Solar Arrays Area: 1.4 m^2
  • Attitude keeping precision: 0.5 deg
  • Angular speed of stabilization: 0.005 deg/s
  • Transmitter power: 15 W
  • Engine Thrust: 124.6 N
  • ISP: 3 002 m/s
Descend Module:
  • Mass: 7 kg
  • Sample chamber volume: 100 cm^3

PAYLOAD 2:

YingHuo-1 (meaning: Firefly, literally, "luminous fire," pinyin "yГnghuЗ’") interplanetary probe



YH 1 will enter a highly eccentric Mars orbit, which will well cover the areas of solar wind, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetic pileup region, and tail and plasma sheet.

The scientific objectives of the mission are:
  • To study details of Martian space magnetosphere, ionosphere and the plasma distribution and their variations;
  • To study Martian ion escape mechanism, its implication for water loss.
  • To have moderate surveys of Martian surface topography, sandstorm and its influence on ionosphere;
  • To explore the Martian gravity field near equator by analyzing orbital data of YH-1.

Characteristics
YingHuo-1
Customer:
  • China National Space Administration
Prime contractor:
  • CAST(?)
Independent Lifetime:
  • 1 year
Mass:
  • 115 kg
Orbit:
  • 800 km Г— 80000 km, 36В° Mars orbit

Launch Vehicle:

Characteristics
Zenit-2SB (or Zenit-2)
Prime contractor:
  • Yuzhmash (A.M. Makarov Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant) - Ukraine
GRAU Index:
  • 11K77
Height:
57 m [/I]
Diameter:
max 3.9 m
Liftoff mass:
444.9 metric tonnes[/I]
Payload mass:
~13.7 tonnes at LEO
1st stage:
  • 1 X RD-171 engine
  • Empty 33.9 tonnes
  • Propellants 318.8 tonnes (RG-1 Kerosene and LOX)
  • Thrust in vacuum 7 908 kN
  • Thrust at sea level 7 259 kN
2nd stage:
  • 1 X RD-120 engine + 1 X RD-8 vernier engine
  • Empty 9.3 tonnes
  • Propellants 80.6 tonnes (RG-1 Kerosene and LOX)
  • Thrust in vacuum 834 + 78 kN


The vehicle's reliability statistics according to http://www.spacelaunchreport.com/log2011.html#rate:

Code:
================================================================ 
Vehicle     Successes/Tries Realzd Pred  Consc. Last     Dates    
                         Rate  Rate* Succes Fail    
================================================================
Zenit 2(M)       29    37    .78  .77      6    9/9/98   1985-
Phobos-Grunt Launch ground tracks

The tracks have mission time ticks



1st burn close-up map:


2nd burn close-up map:


Search TLE's

Parking orbit:

Code:
PHSRM_1EB
1 55500U 11000A   11312.95486111 -.00000000  00000-0 -11606-4 0  0017
2 55500  51.4279   0.6058 0106375  25.7555 298.8256 15.98414689000039
Intermediate orbit:

Code:
PHSRM_2EB
1 55500U 11000A   11313.04305556 -.00000000  00000-0 -11606-4 0  0017
2 55500  51.4188   0.3905 2273205 349.9535 330.1600 10.95863356000019
Phobos-Grunt Mission Plan

Initial Orbit insertion, Orbit boosting and Trans-Mars Ejection



In-flight corrections Mars shpere of influence operations and the trip back



Schematics and mass breakdown of the stages active over the mission



Details of the return module and descend capsule



The descent capsule's blueprint extracted from BioPhobos experiment's presentation (dormant biological objects will have to survive the trip to vicinity of Mars and back)



The series of slides elaborating the principles of picking the target landing site (C. Lorenz, A. Basilevsky / Vernadsky Institute, Moscow; J. Oberst, M. Waehlisch / German aerospace center
Institute of Planetary research; K. Willner / Technical University, Berlin; G. Neukum / ).

Quote:
1) Three types of terrains were detected on selected area of Phobos surface;
2) The regolith and underlying material on terrains N1 and N2 could have layered structure;
3) Approved landing site is situated within the terrain N3 while reserved landing site could be located within border between the terrains N2 and N3.
4) The terrains are regional relief units, therefore the properties of regolith samples, those will be gathered by Phobos-Grunt, could be extrapolated to the significant part of Phobos surface.
Mission Scientific Program and instruments

Look at the thread page 4


Weather forecast for Baikonur, Kazakhstan on November 9, 2011 (2 a.m.)

TimeTempsWindChillHeat IndexUV IndexDew PointRelative HumidityPrecipSnowCloudsVisibilityWindWeather
2 AM-8В°C-8В°C-8В°C0Low-9В°C90%10%9%46%16KMCAL 0 km/h
References
http://www.federalspace.ru
http://www.laspace.ru
http://www.yuzhmash.com
http://www.yuzhnoye.com
http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com
http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru
http://www.spacelaunchreport.com
http://www.intellicast.com/Local/Forecast.aspx
http://ms2011.cosmos.ru/content/presentations
Yinghuo-1 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Yinghuo-1 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/yinghuo-1.htm
http://www.planetary.org/blog/article/00002655/
Attached Thumbnails
2011-04-15_183907.png  

Last edited by SiberianTiger; 11-10-2011 at 12:50 PM. Reason: Failure is confirmed
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Old 04-15-2011, 03:52 PM   #2
Scruce
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Space agencys do not like mars missions very much. This is the reason why.

Quote:
The high failure rate of missions launched from Earth attempting to explore Mars has become informally known as the "Mars Curse". The "Galactic Ghoul" is a fictional space monster that consumes Mars probes, a term coined in 1997 by Time Magazine journalist Donald Neff.

Of 38 launches from Earth in an attempt to reach the planet, only 19 succeeded, a success rate of 50%. Twelve of the missions included attempts to land on the surface, but only seven transmitted data after landing.

The majority of the failed missions occurred in the early years of space exploration and were part of the Soviet and later Russian Mars probe program that suffered several technical difficulties, other than the largely successful Venera program for the exploration of Venus.

Modern missions have an improved success rate; however, the challenge, complexity and length of the missions make it inevitable that failures will occur.

The U.S. NASA Mars exploration program has had a somewhat better record of success in Mars exploration, achieving success in 13 out of 20 missions launched (a 65% success rate), and succeeding in six out of seven (an 86% success rate) of the launches of Mars landers.
As a result of this, Mars SOI missions do not get much funding.

Last edited by Scruce; 04-15-2011 at 03:56 PM.
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Old 04-15-2011, 04:39 PM   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Scruce View Post
 As a result of this, Mars SOI missions do not get much funding.
Actually, fate of the Phobos-Grunt doesn't depend on funding already: it's in preflight stage, currently under testing in thermal vacuum chamber of NPO Lavochkin (btw, sitting 1.9 km away from my home... )

The history of funding and uneasy history of this probe can be read at http://www.russianspaceweb.com/phobo...preflight.html

All money is already pain, they now have either launch to it, or to trash it.
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Old 04-15-2011, 04:56 PM   #4
Izack
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I really doubt superstition plays that much of a role... >.>
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Old 04-15-2011, 05:03 PM   #5
Scruce
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Izack View Post
 I really doubt superstition plays that much of a role... >.>
You don't have to call it the Mars Curse. You could call it the Mars Anomaly or Mars Effect. It is still a proven fact that half of all Mars missions ended in failure. Mostly due to loss of communication.
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Old 04-15-2011, 05:05 PM   #6
Artlav
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Sure, like that time when they mistook meters for feet, or that time when parachutes were made of ropes that rot in vacuum, or the mission that tested lithobraking as the landing method.
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Old 04-15-2011, 05:12 PM   #7
Scruce
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Artlav View Post
 Sure, like that time when they mistook meters for feet, or that time when parachutes were made of ropes that rot in vacuum, or the mission that tested lithobraking as the landing method.
What about Beagle 2, Deep Space 2, Mars Polar Lander, Nozomi and Mars Observer. They were all in the last 15 years.
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Old 04-15-2011, 05:26 PM   #8
Izack
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Scruce View Post
 Mostly due to loss of communication.
And we all know loss of communication can mean only one thing: invasion.
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Old 04-15-2011, 05:28 PM   #9
Scruce
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Izack View Post
 And we all know loss of communication can mean only one thing: invasion.

Taken by Spirit MER (i think).
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Old 04-15-2011, 06:19 PM   #10
Izack
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Magnified:


Magnified again:


Nothing to worry about, folks. They only fight with sticks and crude long guns. Our probes are safe.
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Old 04-20-2011, 05:15 PM   #11
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SPACE.com: One Possible Small Step Toward Mars Landing: A Martian Moon

This picture of Phobos shows two possible landing sites for the Russian Phobos-Grunt mission. The oval in red marks a spot that was previously being considered, while the blue oval denotes the currently favored landing site.
CREDIT: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)
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Old 04-20-2011, 05:42 PM   #12
Wishbone
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Sending humans to Deimos instead of Mars is simply wasting research opportunities and subjecting people to too much radhaz. Fobos-Grunt seems more attractive now.
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Old 06-04-2011, 10:32 PM   #13
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Roscosmos:
Electrical Tests of Phobos-Grunt Spacecraft
:: 05.06.2011

Experts of Lavochkin R&D prepare Phobos-Grunt spacecraft for electrical tests in thermal vacuum chamber.

Ground hardware and harness mating is almost finished. The spacecraft will be accommodated in the chamber in the nearest future. The tests are to confirm spacecraft systems’ proper functioning in the environment close to the real one.

The launch of the spacecraft which is to return soil of Martian moon Phobos to the Earth is slated for late 2011.
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Old 06-15-2011, 07:54 AM   #14
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Photos

Few pictures from electrical tests of Phobos-Grunt probe in FKP NITs RKP, AKA NIIKhimMash (Peresvet, Moscow territory):





Chief designed Victor Khartov oversees putting of Phobos-Grunt into thermal vacuum chamber at test facility in Peresvet, June 6th:









Battery of Phobos-Grunt spacecraft


Laser altitude meter of Phobos-Grunt spacecraft


Engine assembly of the return module of Phobos-Grunt probe:


Description (http://www.niimashspace.ru/images/pdf/catalog_du.pdf):

Engine assembly with pressure feed system includes main engine with 130.5 N thrust, 16 RCS engines with 0.8 N thrust working on gaseous Nitrogen and allowing over 80,000 uses, 4 propellant component tanks with hard separating membrane for fuel and oxidizer and 2 pressures Nitrogen bottles whose casing is made of Armos organic braid.

Purpose:
  • Taking the spacecraft off surface of Phobos and insertion into the defined Mars-centric orbits.
  • Insertion of the spacecraft to Earth-bound transfer trajectory.
  • Keeping attitude of the spacecraft.
  • Making trajectory corrections by commands from the ground.

Performances:
ParameterUnit of measurementValue
Empty masskg55.5
Propellants mass NT/UDMHkg135
Gaseous Nitrogen for RCSkg3
Gaseous Nitrogen for main tanks pressurizationkg3.46
Mass ratio of propellant components 1.85±0.5
DC voltageV27
Working pressure at main engine's feedMPa1.5

Data sheets on RCS modules assembly:
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Old 06-22-2011, 02:53 PM   #15
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Videos

Electrical tests of Phobos-Grunt in Peresvet are successfully completed. The article is unloaded from the thermo-vacuum chamber and is readied to be transported back to Lavochkin Space Centre in Khimki.



Video (not embeddable) is on this page:
http://rutube.ru/tracks/4560346.html...e&bmstart=1000
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