Updates Long March 5 / Tianwen 1 [orbiting Mars] / Zhurong rover [soft-landed]

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China’s Tianwen 1 mission targets mid-May landing on Mars​


April 1, 2021 (no joking) by Stephen Clark (Spaceflight Now)

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China’s Tianwen 1 orbiter took this picture of Mars on March 18 from a distance of approximately 7,100 miles (11,500 kilometers). Credit: CNSA


China’s Tianwen 1 spacecraft — in orbit around Mars since February — is scheduled to deploy a descent module to attempt the country’s first landing on the Red Planet in mid-May. Officials plan to share the Mars rover’s scientific data with researchers around the world, a senior Chinese scientist said last week.

Chinese officials have not announced the exact date for the attempted Mars landing. Tianwen 1 mission managers have more flexibility in setting the landing date than officials on other Mars missions.

Tianwen 1 will release its lander and rover from its position in orbit around Mars. Most Mars landers, such as NASA’s Perseverance rover, enter the Martian atmosphere on a direct course from Earth. Those trajectories typically have preset landing dates tied to when the missions launched.

Wang Chi, director of the National Space Science Center at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said March 23 that Tianwen 1’s lander and rover are scheduled to touch down on Mars in May.

“The first Chinese Mars mission, Tianwen 1, is now orbiting Mars, and we are landing in the middle of May,” Wang said in a presentation to the National Academies’ Space Studies Board. “We are open to international cooperation, and the data will be available publicly soon.”

The Tianwen 1 spacecraft entered orbit around Mars on Feb. 10, completing a nearly seven-month interplanetary journey that began last July with a launch on a heavy-lift Long March 5 rocket, the most powerful launcher in China’s inventory.

The arrival of the Tianwen 1 spacecraft at Mars made China the sixth country or space agency have a probe orbiting the Red Planet, following the United States, the former Soviet Union, the European Space Agency, India, and the United Arab Emirates.

Since Feb. 10, the Tianwen 1 spacecraft has maneuvered into an orbit closer to Mars. The orbiter’s current path takes it as close as 174 miles (280 kilometers) and as far as 36,660 miles (59,000 kilometers) from Mars. Tianwen 1 completes one lap around the Red Planet every two days or so.

Tianwen 1 arrived at Mars one day after the UAE’s Hope orbiter steered into orbit around the Red Planet, and eight days before landing of NASA’s Perseverance rover. The favorable planetary alignment of Earth and Mars that allowed the three missions to reach Mars in February comes once every 26 months.

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A camera ejected from China’s Tianwen 1 spacecraft captured this view of the probe in deep space last year on the journey from Earth to Mars. The Tianwen 1 mission’s lander and rover are inside the white heat shield. Credit: China National Space Administration

Tianwen 1’s lander and rover will target landing in a broad plain in the northern hemisphere of Mars called Utopia Planitia.

If China pulls off that feat, it will make China the third country to perform a soft landing on Mars — after the Soviet Union and the United States — and the second country to drive a robotic rover on the Red Planet.

The Tianwen 1 orbiter, which will continue its mission after releasing the lander and rover, is designed to operate for at least one Martian year, or about two years on Earth. The solar-powered rover, fitted with six wheels for mobility, has a life expectancy of at least 90 days, Chinese officials said.

Once it releases the lander and rover, the Tianwen 1 orbiter will adjust its orbit to transition into regular science operations. The orbiter will also relay communications signals between ground controllers in China and the rover exploring the Martian surface.

The Tianwen 1 rover is cocooned inside a heat shield for a fiery descent to the surface of Mars. After releasing from the orbiter mothership, the lander will enter the Red Planet’s atmosphere, deploy a parachute, then fire a braking rocket to slow down for landing.

Assuming the landing is successful, the rover will activate cameras, a subsurface radar, sensors to measure the composition of Martian rocks, a magnetic field monitor, and a weather station to begin collecting data at the Utopia Planitia location.

With the recent arrivals of China’s Tianwen 1 and the UAE’s Hope missions, there are now eight orbiters operating at Mars.

NASA’s Odyssey spacecraft, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the MAVEN atmospheric observatory are currently returning data from Mars orbit, along with the European Space Agency’s Mars Express and ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, and India’s Mars Orbiter Mission.

NASA said last week had a “limited exchange” of information with China’s space agency since Tianwen 1’s arrival at the Red Planet to share data on the orbits of the Mars orbiters. The data-sharing initiative is aimed at reducing the risk of collisions between spacecraft operating at Mars, NASA said.

A provision in law known as the Wolf Amendment prohibits most bilateral cooperation between the U.S. and Chinese space programs. The Wolf Amendment is named after former Rep. Frank Wolf, R-Virginia, who first inserted the language into a NASA budget bill in 2011.

But the law does not restrict all contact between NASA and China’s space agency, provided the proposed collaboration passes a review by the FBI, and NASA informs Congress of the exchange at least 30 days ahead of time.

The China National Space Administration confirmed in a statement Wednesday that it held “working level meetings” with NASA from January through March on “exchanging ephemeris data to ensure the flight safety of Mars spacecraft.”

While NASA’s collaboration with China’s space program is limited, other nations have been more involved in Chinese missions like Tianwen 1.

Scientists from the Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, or IRAP, in France contributed to a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy instrument on the Tianwen 1 rover.

French scientists, with support from the French space agency CNES, provided guidance to their Chinese counterparts on the spectroscopy technique, which uses a laser to zap a pinhead-size portion of a rock, and a spectrometer to analyze the light given off by plasma generated by the laser’s interaction with the rock’s surface.

The technique allows an instrument to determine the chemical make-up of rocks on Mars. French scientists also provided China with a calibration target for the rover’s laser spectroscopy instrument.

The same French team worked on instruments on NASA’s Curiosity and Perseverance Mars rovers. The scientists hope to cross-calibrate measurements between the two U.S.-led missions and China’s Tianwen 1 rover.

Scientists from the Space Research Institute at the Austrian Academy of Sciences assisted in the development of the magnetometer on the Tianwen 1 orbiter and helped calibrate the flight instrument.

Argentina is home to a Chinese-owned deep space tracking antenna used to communicate with Tianwen 1. The European Space Agency also agreed to provide communications time for Tianwen 1 through its own worldwide network of deep space tracking stations.
 

Soheil_Esy

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E1Yj3hcXEAMi6T9

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1. 祝融登火

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2. Landing sequence of Zhurong.

China Mars rover lands on red planet Video 2m41s
May 14, 2021
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1IUvKzYKn0
https://twitter.com/HenriKenhmann/status/1393383328821121028
https://twitter.com/MarsZhurong/status/1393379988762767360
https://www.bilibili.com/video/BV1VK411F7WY/?spm_id_from=333.788.recommend_more_video.-1



??????

The Tianwen-1 Orbiter achieved the manoeuvre.

Zhurong Mars lander should have landed by now!

Zhurong's radio signal send from the surface is now 200 million km from Earth and will arrive in 17 minutes.

________________________

If sent, Zhurong's radio signal has arrived to Mission Control in Beijing now, and we are waiting for the official announcement.


光速太慢了,拜托跑快一点吧

Dude, Soheil told you to develop interplanetary supraluminal Quantum Entanglement Communication Network!?


________________________

Rumors of a success circulating on weibo:

航天吧,有人发了这个,前方消息:已确认初始状态,正在等待太阳帆板打开和后续探测器自检

Data received on initial status but awaiting confirmation of the solar panels' opening for announcing the news.


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3. Hint of success.



________________________

Official, China joins the U.S. and Soviet Union becoming the only 3rd power in the world to successfully achieve soft landing on Mars at 7:18 Beijing Time!

【我国首次火星探测任务着陆火星取得圆满成功】 中国青年报客户端北京航天城5月15日电:记者从国家航天局获悉,科研团队根据“祝融号”火星车发回遥测信号确认,5月15日,天问一号着陆巡视器成功着陆于火星乌托邦平原南部预选着陆区,我国首次火星探测任务着陆火星取得圆满成功。

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4. China joins the U.S. and Soviet Union becoming the only 3rd power in the world to successfully achieve soft landing on Mars!

Succesful landing of Tianwen-1, on Mars! Landing point: 109.7 E, 25.1 N, less than 40 km from target location in Utopia Planitia. More details expected later!

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5. Bounded planet, boundless mind.


XINHUA 【Official News丨#中国天问落火#】On May 15, China’s first Mars exploration mission, Tianwen-1, landed in the pre-selected landing area in the southern Utopia Plain of Mars, and left China's footprint on it. This is an important step in China's interstellar exploration journey. In the follow-up, the Zhurong rover will carry out global imaging of the landing site, self-inspection and departure from the landing platform, and conduct inspections. #祝融祝融祝你成功#


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6. CCTV13 report of the successful landing.

It is about 3:30 in the afternoon in Utopia Planitia at the landing site of Zhurong.

China's Tianwen-1 probe lands on #Mars
2:38 AM · May 15, 2021
https://twitter.com/CGTNOfficial/status/1393365096609435648


At about 4 o'clock, the landing patrol and orbiter separated. After about 3 hours of flight, it entered the Martian atmosphere. After about 9 minutes of deceleration, hovering, obstacle avoidance, it successfully soft landed in the pre-selected landing zone in the southern Utopia Plain of Mars.

About 30 minutes after the two space orbiter and lander are separated, the orbiter has ascended and returned to the parked orbit to provide relay communication for the subsequent exploration missions of the landing patrol and build a communication link between the Earth and Mars.

In the follow-up, the Zhurong rover will sequentially perform global imaging of the landing site, self-check, leave the landing platform, and conduct inspections on the landing platform.

According to the scheduled plan, the rover will deploy the mast, solar panel and directional antenna in sequence within 3 Mars days after the landing, and establish a UHF inter-device communication link with the orbiter.

The rover will be deployed to the surface of Mars within 9 Mars days.

Within 15 Martian days, the initial data upload will be completed. (China Aerospace News)

https://twitter.com/TheElegant055/status/1393369410740555776​

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7. Zhurong Mars Rover.

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8. After Bharat the character “中” on the rear wheels. 这是学习了印度的先进经验

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9. Reaction control system (RCS) of the reentry capsule.

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10. Flap deployed on the reentry capsule.

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11. Zhurong lander hovering before final touch down.

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12. Group photo in front of the classic big red screen. Crowd is shouting "火星你好!!" ("Hello Mars!")

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13. Solar panels, mast and HGA deployment already completed.

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14. The landing site for Zhurong. The line is the distance between the reported landing coordinates (top left) to the planned landing site (bottom right, which would be the centre of their landing ellipse). Landing was about 39.04km to the WNW.

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15. Mars probes current lineup.


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:cool:?
 
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Soheil_Esy

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Finally, Tianwen-1 becomes the first spacecraft in Asia to land on Mars! See: https://indianexpress.com/article/t...second-nation-to-do-so-after-us-7315747/lite/

Well Bharat, while being less gifted when it comes to intricated engineering, has for millenia been a renown craddle for producing the top ideas and philosophy of humankind.

China's cultural setting has since then changed profondly for the following 3 millenia, after the introduction of Buddhism.

After reverse engineering it, China further developed Buddhism doctrine, improving it with Chinese characteristics, before diffusing its teaching Eastward toward the Korean peninsula and Japanese islands!

Today, India's innovation with Pragyan lunar rover has so impressed the Chinese that it has been reverse engineered and applied to the Zhurong Mars rover just before its launch!

Unique design of Indian lunar rover

20190908170507800.jpg

https://archive.ph/EGVuv/a631e5e383bb41df475adedbb14ad7a8ef266d5a.jpg ; https://archive.ph/EGVuv/d2460c9c01e87ab2ae47ac639c2cad66c6ae4523/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210517060828/https://i.guancha.cn/news/social/2019/09/08/20190908170507800.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210517060824/https://www.guancha.cn/ShiHao/2019_09_09_517055_s.shtml ; https://archive.ph/nHCe3
1. Unique design of Indian lunar rover. 印度月球车的独特设计

当然,“月船2号”也不缺乏精彩的细节,比如印度科学家对Pragyan月球车的轮子就进行了特殊设计,每转一圈,就能在月壤上留下印度国徽和ISRO标志的印记。
Of course, Chandrayaan-2 (Moonship 2) is also not lacking in wonderful details. For example, Indian scientists have specially designed the wheels of the Pragyan lunar rover. Every time it turns, it can leave the Indian national emblem and ISRO mark on the lunar soil.

Therefore the reverse engineered Indian tech makes it to Mars via the Chinese rover!

E1ZYm1bXMAQczB1

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8. After Bharat the character “中” on the rear wheels. 这是学习了印度的先进经验

This character means "middle", the first character of the word "China" (Middle Kingdom).


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:cool:?
 

Sbb1413

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Well Bharat, while being less gifted when it comes to intricated engineering, has for millenia been a renown craddle for producing the top ideas and philosophy of humankind.

China's cultural setting has since then changed profondly for the following 3 millenia, after the introduction of Buddhism.

After reverse engineering it, China further developed Buddhism doctrine, improving it with Chinese characteristics, before diffusing its teaching Eastward toward the Korean peninsula and Japanese islands!

Today, India's innovation with Pragyan lunar rover has so impressed the Chinese that it has been reverse engineered and applied to the Zhurong Mars rover just before its launch!

Unique design of Indian lunar rover

20190908170507800.jpg

https://archive.ph/EGVuv/a631e5e383bb41df475adedbb14ad7a8ef266d5a.jpg ; https://archive.ph/EGVuv/d2460c9c01e87ab2ae47ac639c2cad66c6ae4523/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210517060828/https://i.guancha.cn/news/social/2019/09/08/20190908170507800.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210517060824/https://www.guancha.cn/ShiHao/2019_09_09_517055_s.shtml ; https://archive.ph/nHCe3
1. Unique design of Indian lunar rover. 印度月球车的独特设计

当然,“月船2号”也不缺乏精彩的细节,比如印度科学家对Pragyan月球车的轮子就进行了特殊设计,每转一圈,就能在月壤上留下印度国徽和ISRO标志的印记。
Of course, Chandrayaan-2 (Moonship 2) is also not lacking in wonderful details. For example, Indian scientists have specially designed the wheels of the Pragyan lunar rover. Every time it turns, it can leave the Indian national emblem and ISRO mark on the lunar soil.

Therefore the reverse engineered Indian tech makes it to Mars via the Chinese rover!

E1ZYm1bXMAQczB1

https://archive.ph/esQH8/731df1a4943b5c87e63e39506d4e2927ad63d5d0.png ; https://archive.ph/esQH8/c2686bd75549480507e4ed00aadbc2fa30358ed4/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210515061451/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/E1ZYm1bXMAQczB1?format=png&name=900x900
8. After Bharat the character “中” on the rear wheels. 这是学习了印度的先进经验

This character means "middle", the first character of the word "China" (Middle Kingdom).
Yeah, the Chinese just stole our ideas in order to show their presence on the Martian soil. Despite it may seem, "China" is not the native name of the PRC, it is 中国 (pinyin: Zhōngguó; roughly choong-quo; literally "Central State"). The rover simply took the "中" portion of the name.

Also, I feel more comfortable to use "India" instead of "Bharat" to refer to the country in English forums.

Edit: The word "China" did not come from the misreading of 中国. Instead, its oldest attestation is on the Kautilya's book Arthashasthra as चीन (roughly chee-na), which probably came from the Chinese name for the Qin dynasty. The adjective "Sini(ti)c" and the prefix "Sino-" probably also came from the word "Qin" through the Latin word SINAE.
 
Last edited:

Soheil_Esy

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Yeah, the Chinese just stole our ideas in order to show their presence on the Martian soil.

Let us see the origination of this whole imprint wheel concept.

First printing originated from the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 CE) in China, evolving from ink rubbings made on paper or cloth from texts on stone tables used during the Han. Printing is considered one of the Four Great Inventions of China that spread throughout the world. A specific type of printing called mechanical woodblock printing on paper started in China during the Tang dynasty before the 8th century CE.

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1. Chinese Yuan dynasty rotating tray typeset. 王祯发明了活字转轮排字盘,活字印刷才得到迅速发展。并于1298年用木活字排印《旌德县志》;其《造活字印书法》(附于《农书》书末)是最早的系统地叙述活字排版印刷术的科技文献。 此前,捡字和排字时间太长一直是阻碍活字印刷术推广的障碍之一。

The Chinese Yuan dynasty rotating tray typeset is very close to the Zhurong-1 rover wheel.

But the imprint is still 90 degree from the final design.

The first prayer wheels, which are driven by wind, have been used in China since the fourth century. The concept of the prayer wheel is a physical manifestation of the phrase "turning the wheel of Dharma," which describes the way, in which the Buddha taught.

Prayer wheels originated from ‘The School of Shakyamuni sutra, volume 3 – pagoda and temple’.

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https://archive.ph/zBZ8O/947a7ce1a7766f476d4c6e71a8de43cffde8f4f4.jpg ; https://archive.ph/zBZ8O/0394c7668d7053932c9beea446c95bb3c121758c/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210605170720/http://img1.jihui88.com/upload/s/s2/shendiaozj/picture/2019/08/21/8043d8d8-2ae8-4928-9a10-c2da9a163fec.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210605170804/http://www.shendiaozj.com/product-detail-847188.html
2. Chinese Prayer wheels. 转经筒制作厂家|设计公司|定做|规划|价格-神雕铜艺。

The invention was already there, but the application was first envisaged by ISRO.

Therefore who 'stole' the invention from China? Well done Bharat!

技術を盗むgijutsu wo nusumu

The idea of “stealing knowledge” is a reference to the Japanese concept of “gijutsu wo nusumu” – in fact, it’s a direct translation. It has its roots in the days when apprenticeship was the main way that teaching happened in workplaces. The more experienced workers would not spoonfeed the apprentices with easy explanations, but rather make them work for their knowledge. The idea was that people would value more, and remember better, something that they had to make an effort to learn.




Asian space powers and the discovery of water on Mars

Indeed, instead of following China in its space race, to end up at the second place again and again, India has decided to skip its second Lunar Orbiter Mission and send the same spacecraft instead on a Mars orbit.

India's Chandrayan-1 Lunar orbiter was launched on 22 October 2008, behind China's first lunar orbiter Chang'e-1 launched on 24th October 2007.

China's second lunar orbiter Chang'e-2 was launched on 1st October 2010.

India's Chandrayan-2 Lunar orbiter would have only secured a second place again, but the decision was taken sometimes after October 2010 and the official announcement on 5th August 2012 during the Independence Day address of India to redirect into a Mars orbiter mission.

India's MARS ORBITER MISSION (MOM, Mangalayaan) was finally launched on 5th November 2013, entering Mars orbital insertion on 23rd September 2014.

Thus instantaneously ending the U.S. and Soviet monopoly of orbital imagery of the red planet:

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https://archive.is/ieW1i/20b434359b0b3b03346bc79168106261e2b07a82.jpg ; https://archive.is/ieW1i/6b8f0ceb6a49ea54a4aaec94b87eb1e2d0be66ba/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210409185158/https://www.isro.gov.in/sites/default/files/galleries/Pictures%20from%20Mars%20Colour%20Camera%20%28MCC%29%20onboard%20India%E2%80%99s%20Mars%20Orbiter%20Spacecraft/mom.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210409185458/https://www.isro.gov.in/pslv-c25-mars-orbiter-mission/pictures-mars-colour-camera-mcc-onboard-india%E2%80%99s-mars-orbiter ; https://archive.ph/T5uuC
1. Mangalayaan imaging Olympus Mons' Water ice Clouds.

This ground breaking event for mankind has again been confirmed with the arrival of China's own Mars orbiter, lander and rover Tianwen-1, in March 2021, imaging the water clouds.

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▲ Photo released on Jan 1, 2022 by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) shows the group photo of the Tianwen-1 orbiter and Mars of brownish color, with obvious global white high clouds coverage, more visible at the limb of the planet.
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During the same launch window of 2020, a third Asian nation, the U.A.E. has also successfully launched the HOPE spacecraft on a Mars orbit, with the aid of an U.S. space launcher.

The returned images again totally confirming the water cloud coverage of the brownish planet.

medium_The_Colored_Image_from_the_Emirates_Exploration_Imager_copy_ade82f0983.png

▲ The colored image from Emirates Exploration Imager (EXI) was generated using the camera’s red (635 nm) and ultraviolet (320 nm) filters. The red channel clearly shows the dark and light features of the Martian surface, while the water ice clouds stand out in the ultraviolet channel. April 22nd 2021
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medium_Thr_Image_from_the_EMUS_Instrument_copy_8309efb5f4.png

▲ This image was acquired by the EMUS instrument on 10 May 2021 and shows sunlight reflecting off the extended cloud of atomic hydrogen gas that surrounds the planet Mars, which is visible in the center only as a dark disk hidden deep inside the fog of gas. The atomic hydrogen is formed by sunlight splitting water in the lower atmosphere, which then diffuses to the upper atmosphere and escapes to space. May 10th 2021
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As of 2021, the U.S. NASA also imaged water cloud in the shot taken recently by the Perseverance Mars Rover:

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https://archive.ph/5veF3/9ea4e31ae7caaafe51417fb4557564ebb025aa37.jpg ; https://archive.ph/5veF3/4e9ad854a86ded8764a7b74ecb839f002f5ad035/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210407082843/https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020-raw-images/pub/ods/surface/sol/00043/ids/edr/browse/rcam/RRF_0043_0670767855_054EBY_N0031398RHAZ02006_00_0LLJ01_1200.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210409191918/https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/multimedia/raw-images/ ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210409192139/https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/multimedia/raw-images/RRF_0043_0670767855_054EBY_N0031398RHAZ02006_00_0LLJ ; https://archive.ph/F0n4k ; https://archive.ph/F0n4k/d393eae6fea83d6792cb328a1b2b41c300c637ef/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210409191918/https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/multimedia/raw-images/ ; https://archive.ph/eAsHW
3. Possible clouds visible in NASA's Mars Perseverance rover image acquired using its onboard Rear Right Hazard Avoidance Camera. This image was acquired on Apr. 4, 2021 (Sol 43) at the local mean solar time of 15:14:38.





The anti-dust technology of Zhurong-1 rover

China is planning several steps in advances.

Not only the Deep Space Network was tested even beyond the distance of Mars, with the Chang'e 2 lunar orbiter venturing up to 300 millions km distance that is near the asteroid belt (asteroid belt is roughly 329 million to 478.7 million km), contact being lost in 2014 due to weakening of the signal.
But piloting such space probe even beyond Mars orbit was therefore fully mastered back since 2012
The Mars lander technology was tested with success on the moon, with fully automated A.I., not requiring human command, several times with Chang'e-3, Chang'e-4 and Chang'e-5 lunar landers. Technology mastered since 2013.
The Mars rover technology was tested with success on the moon, several times with Chang'e-3, Chang'e-4. Technology mastered since 2013.
The Mars atmosheric capsule reentry technology was mastered with the Chang'e 5-T1 mission, specifically design to test this phase. Technology mastered since 2014.
The Mars mission space launcher was tested with success on the 3rd launch, following the failure on the second launch. CZ-5-Y3 launcher technology mastered since 27 December 2019.

Therefore China could have launched a Mars rover mission right after 2019 already, if not for the biannual launch window!

China has developed an unique strategy to ensure that no solar panels can be covered in dust!

First cutting-edge technology used on Zhurong-1 Mars Rover is the special coating that prevent dust covering its solar panels.
Second technology is the gap designed to allow all the residual heavier particles of sand to slip over the panels. For this, special electrical actuators will fold the panels at a 90 degrees vertical position. Furthermore, in case of severe weather and during the night, the panels will be folded, like those plants that close up their flowers at night, such as Dandelions, Tulips, Poppies, Gazanias, Crocuses and Osteospermums known as day bloomers. They close at night and reopen in the morning, in a manner reminiscent of “going to sleep”. The flowers usually close at night in environments in which nights are cold and wet.
At night Mars is cold, and maybe dew can form ice that would prevent the sands from being dusted.

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https://archive.is/EjTaM/843c8eb7eb72885a60309f9c56fbbb10b61eaf64/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210516210012/https://twitter.com/Kaynouky/status/1393964393352896512 ; https://archive.is/EjTaM
1. Active anti-dust technology of Zhurong-1 Mars rover.

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:cool:?
 
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Sbb1413

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That's not really new, NASA missions figured it out, but it never hurts to have one more observation that confirms it. Hard to imagine but yes, Mars very likely once had oceans of liquid water (and a dense atmosphere).

ancient-mars.jpg
I imagine the Green Mars quite well, and its desertification can be described as the steam leaking out of the Martian atmosphere due to the high rms speed of the steam at the time.

You can also say that Earth has a very few concentration of hydrogen and helium in the atmosphere due to their rms speed exceeding Earth's escape velocity during Earth's formation.
 

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If you look at Mars through a good telescope you can see morning hazes and clouds. It still has a substantial atmosphere. So going by the visual impression it's not hard to imagine a recent denser atmosphere.

The dry/dead Mars preception was created after Mariner 4 and reinforced by landers that went mostly to dry desert areas.
But Vking 2 showed frost and Phoenix landed on ice:
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1652693088811.png
 

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That's not really new, NASA missions figured it out, but it never hurts to have one more observation that confirms it. Hard to imagine but yes, Mars very likely once had oceans of liquid water (and a dense atmosphere).

ancient-mars.jpg

I imagine the Green Mars quite well, and its desertification can be described as the steam leaking out of the Martian atmosphere due to the high rms speed of the steam at the time.

You can also say that Earth has a very few concentration of hydrogen and helium in the atmosphere due to their rms speed exceeding Earth's escape velocity during Earth's formation.

We don't know if Mars was green (vegetal life) at some point. Rovers have found nothing like fossils. Yet. We have to date more precisely the period when there was liquid water on Mars, how long it lasted...
 
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