#### Soheil_Esy

##### Fazanavard فضانورد
© A S☫heil presentation; First published 3 JUN 2021; Last update 4 JUN 2021

2. Introduction

3. Prerequisites For A Manned Suborbital Flight

4. Japan In The Manned Space Race Part 1

5. Japan In The Manned Space Race Part 2

6. Thailand In The Manned Space Race Part 1

7. Thailand In The Manned Space Race Part 2

8. India In The Manned Space Race

9. TBD

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#### Soheil_Esy

##### Fazanavard فضانورد
Part 2

First, recap of some previous threads:

ESA:

[News] India to become a manned space-faring nation in 2022. ESA could beat that.

India:

ISRO: Mission to space may not be a 'manned' one

India plans to send a man to the moon in 2016.

Introduction

The 4th manned space race started after 2003 and following China's Shenzhou-5, is now raging as of 2021. Mainly between Iran and India.

Before that, we saw the first possible race during the WW2, probably involving both Germany though not official (fractional orbit [FOB]) and Japan (stratospheric up to 40 km altitude), probably between 1940 to 1945.

But with the Karman Line of 80 km to 100 km altitude as definition for the space boundary, the second space race took place right after 1945 until ~1961, with the U.S. as main contender, and basically continuing the development of war time spaceflight research made previously in both Japan and Germany.

The third one was the little documented space race between China and France from 1960s to 2003.

ESA
Denmark
India
Iran
Japan
Myanmar
North Korea
South Korea
Thailand
Turkey

This thread will cover the race that might end within months, with either a suborbital flight or orbital one.

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#### Soheil_Esy

##### Fazanavard فضانورد
Part 3

Prerequisites For A Manned Suborbital Flight

1. Introduction
2. Suborbital Focus
3. The Green Light
4. Space-time Continuum Warping
5. Conclusion

1. Introduction

In the 21th century, sending a man into space might seems easily feasible by any moderately industrialized nation.

Proof that the minimal technologies required for such a spaceflight are already widely accessible in today's internet information era, smaller private teams are spawning everywhere, like IL Aerospace Technologies from Israel!

March/April 2004

IL Aerospace Technologies (ILAT) is based in Zichron Ya'akov, Israel, and is led by Dov Chartarifsky. Recently it has unveiled its new X Prize competition vehicle design now called "Negev" (formerly named Negev-5). Aside from the name, the vehicle's configuration has gone through several design iterations in the last few months. These modifications originated from a fresh set of innovative concepts derived from ILAT's recently formed technical team and advisory committee.

The Negev will be launched from ground level using a helium balloon as a first stage. This unconventional approach allows the vehicle to hitchhike a free ride to its intended rocket launch altitude of 10 Km (32,808 feet) above sea level, and overcome most of the atmospheric drag while saving precious fuel. This high-altitude launch concept makes it possible to design a smaller, lighter, simpler, and more efficient vehicle, hence satisfying the criterion for practical low-cost space access.

Once the altitude for rocket ignition is reached, the vehicle will be detached from the balloon initiating the staging process. The vehicle will drop for 3 to 5 seconds before the solid rocket motor ignites, creating a negative velocity of 50m/s. At the same time, the balloon will immediately sense the sudden ballast change and spring upwards, separating itself away from the vehicle to a safe distance. The on-board computer will control the firing of the 77.8 kN (17,500 lbf) solid rocket motor. The burn will last about 96 seconds at around 78% thrust, accelerating the vehicle to Mach 3.54 (1165.5 m/s). The altitude at burnout will be 49.6 Km (162,730 ft), while the G-force applied to the passengers will reach a maximum of 4.3 prior to burnout. After engine cut-off, the vehicle will continue to cruise pass the 100 Km (328,084 ft) mark where the crew will begin to experience weightlessness conditions for about 4 minutes. At approximately 120 Km (393,701 ft), all forward inertia will be depleted and the vehicle will start to free-fall back to earth.

The attitude of the vehicle will remain the identical to the one during the ascent phase. At an altitude higher than 70 Km (229,659 ft), the nose sphere will detach from the capsule but will remain connected by a cable, thus serving as a stabilizing element during the reentry phase. The maximum deceleration force will peek at ~5.81 G's at 23.6 Km (77,428 ft) into the decent. At an altitude of 5 Km (16,404 ft), at a velocity of around 85m/sec (190 mph), the parachute sequence will start by pyrotechnically deploying both drogue and main chutes sequentially. This altitude is high enough to allow redundant sequences in case of primary system failure. With the main chute fully open, the vehicle will slow down to a mere 7 m/sec before splashing down to the sea.

1. IL Aerospace Technologies's X Prize competition vehicle Negev Logo

2. Negev suborbital space mission specifications. As accessed in 2005.

2. Suborbital Focus

And indeed both the U.S.A., Iran and North Korea have chosen the same path in their space development focus tree, to attempt a suborbital spaceflight first before any manned orbital mission.

Both use a one seater space capsule atop a liquid propellant ballistic missile: U.S. Redstone, Iranian Safir-1D, North Korean Hwasong-15.

3. U.S. Redstone, Iranian Safir-1D, North Korean Hwasong-15.

Therefore the very similar size for both the missiles and capsules. Notice that North Korea is benefiting from the best hardware available: dual engines for double redundancy, thus double reliability and heightened safety level, and also a much voluminous and more powerful (thrust) launcher.

3. The Green Light

This begs the question, what on earth is hindering the most economically and technologically advanced nations, to send a man into space indigenously?

Japan that was nearly hardware-ready by 1945 for starting waves of near-space military manned flights, India that possesses various types of ballistic missiles including ICBMs, and many other military powerhouses of the G7 seem simply to lack the Green Light.

5. Space-time Continuum Warping

To clarify Korea's securing the 4th place as a manned space power, one needs to be endowed with Space-time Continuum Warping special capabilities.

Kim Jong Il was one of these Great Person. And this Space-time Continuum Warping special ability gives us the answer.

By voyaging back in time to the 15th century Choson Dynasty of Korea, and then to 1590, the first ever recorded manned rocket propelled flight of Jung Pyung Gu (정평구, 鄭平九)(1566-1624), gives the priority of the Green Light to the Korean civilization.

Although the concept was reverse engineered from the Chinese Wan Hu's (万虎) rocket-propelled manned winged Flying Vehicle, of 1465 AD, Wan Hu's maiden flight ended in failure, while Jung Pyung Gu succeeded with a 12 km flight.

5. Wan Hu's (万虎) rocket propelled manned winged Flying Vehicle:
Most likely a rocket plane based on an upscaled, manned version of the world's first military winged rocket, the Shenhuo Feiya (神火飞鸦: Divine fire flying crow) ~1403 AD, powered by 4 external solid fuel strap-on boosters, the fuselage containing explosive charge, with a powered and gliding total range of 300 meters (http://baike.baidu.com/item/神火飞鸦/79429)

6. Conclusion

This vision, absolutely inaccessible and unreal for the common of mortals, shows both the past, four centuries ago, the present and also the near future.

In the journey of every nation there are moments that bring utmost pride and have a historic impact on generations to follow. One such moment is the year 1590.

Choson Korea had successfully tested a manned rocket propelled flying vehicle. Thus unlocking the Green Light for the Fourth Place as a manned space power in the 21st century!

https://archive.ph/pEc2G/c275fa77091dc0951d55df0629b419ebf535e44c.jpg ; https://archive.ph/pEc2G/ddba61d0166f40d4691c251cc1c826f051444731/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20191012192914if_/https://i.imgur.com/iCiDNMb.jpg
6. Space-time Continuum Warping: Unlocking the Green Light with Mankind's first ever manned rocket propelled flight by Jung Pyung Gu (정평구, 鄭平九) in 1590, and all the following manned Hwasong-15E1, Unha-IXE2, Unha-XF1, Unha-XXVII.

https://archive.ph/yJq4z/80198576a45aff3a2e21837b6e58144c63f93f97.jpg ; https://archive.ph/yJq4z/de5d3a83f4f3ee94329fcff2877021ac7dc08ddf/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20190816010229/https://i.imgur.com/hoOMxvA.jpg
7. Space-time Continuum Warping: Unlocking the Green Light with Mankind's first ever manned rocket propelled flight by Jung Pyung Gu (정평구, 鄭平九) in 1590, and all the following manned Hwasong-15E1, Unha-IXE2, Unha-XF1, Unha-XXVII.

Obviously, only historians can give us a definitive answer to this question.

The current lineup of all the competitors for the 4th space race:

https://archive.vn/15xcb/210f2355242ffc4ce97fb8870111c9b19716aa19.jpg ; https://archive.vn/15xcb/3bd39178dbd3f41fe8fe814a3fcf1cc9ae248648/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210302104318/https://i.imgur.com/JxkJviu.jpg
8. Competitors of the 4th Space Race, as of March 2021.

Therefore the revised list of manned spacefaring powers, by order of green light, that is historical milestone and claimed legitimacy, as of September 2020:

1. China: Wan Hu's (万虎) rocket-propelled manned winged Flying Vehicle maiden flight ended in failure, 1465 AD.
2. Korea: Jung Pyung Gu (정평구, 鄭平九) first recorded manned rocket propelled flight with a 12 km flight, 1590 AD.
3. Myanmar-Thailand-Laos: legend of Payawan failed winged manned rocket propelled flight, after 13th century A.D.
4. Turkey: Lagâri Hasan Çelebi successful manned rocket flight, 1633 AD.
5. Germany: first manned rocket-boosted glider flown by Friedrich Stamer on 11 June 1928; 1944 world's first A-9 FOB manned rocketplane, and GEO manned space program envisaged in ~1940.
6. Soviet Union: stratostat balloon program started after ~1931; first Soviet SK-9 rocket propelled glider in 1936
7. United States: stratostat balloon program started after ~1932; first flight of American MX-324 rocket-powered airplane on 5 July 1944
8. Japan: MXY-7 Ohka rocket-powered manned suicide aircraft in 1944; world's first intercontinental stratospheric manned space program started in 1940. Upcoming large scale attacks with crewed gigantic stratospheric FUGO airships announced on 4th June 1945 AD.
9. India: Mysorean rockets, 18th century AD.
10 France: joined the manned space race after 1957.
11. Iran: joined the manned space race in 2008.
12. Denmark: Copenhagen Suborbitals joined the manned space race in 2008.

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#### Soheil_Esy

##### Fazanavard فضانورد
Part 4

Japan In The Manned Space Race Part 1

Today, we will use all 12 filters defined by Soheil to parse the manned space program of Japan:

1. Green Light And Historical Milestones As Prerequisites For A Manned Suborbital Flight

Brief history of Japan's manned space program

On November 1944, the Empire of Japan started the launch of the world's first intercontinental weapons system.

With a wave of 9'300 transpacific fūsen bakudan (風船爆弾) or "windly vessel" sent 10'000 km away toward North America.

The program is known as Fu-Go (ふ号兵器), and the new platforms surf the powerful Kamikaze (神風: Divine Wind) stratospheric current (called afterwards jet streams in the West) that were discovered by Wasaburo Ooishi back in 1924, thus far above enemy interceptors altitude.

Conventional explosives alone were not enough for the Empire of Japan to defeat the U.S. and other Allies.

But DEW intercontinental stratospheric FUGOs would. As announced by the official Nipponese Domei news agency and reported on Monday 4th June 1945, large scale attacks with crewed gigantic stratospheric airships [2] were to be expected soon!

2. Space Sci-fi movie development as rule of thumb

TBD

3. Rare Earth Reserve among the future manned space powers

Rare Earth Reserve Of Japan

Rare-Earth Materials May Start Coming From Japanese Seafloor

Aug 08, 2019 at 11:45am

When oil started to be more and more difficult to obtain – and prices rised – it started to be extracted from the seafloor. Sometimes really deep in the ocean, at depths that can reach 28,000 ft underwater. What if we told you rare-earth materials may one day also come from “under the sea”, as Sebastian would say? Well, that’s the intention.

A group of scientists from the Waseda University made research in an area of more than 617,700 acres (2,500 km²) of the Japanese seabed at depths of 19,000 ft and discovered there very big sources of rare-earth materials.

To be more precise, and taking the current global demand into consideration, it could supply “supply Y (yttrium), Eu (europium), Tb (terbium), and Dy (dysprosium) for 780, 620, 420, and 730 years, respectively,” states the study published at Nature.

The important part is that the area contains “16 million tons of rare-earth oxides”. Once the material is extracted from the bottom of the sea, the researchers propose “hydrocyclone separators” to process the minerals.

http://web.archive.org/web/20190808205541/https://insideevs.com/news/364144/rare-earth-elements-japanese-seabed/
http://archive.ph/0aeph

2. A mineral deposit has been found in Japan’s exclusive economic zone in the Western Pacific, of more than 16 million tons of rare-earth oxides.

4. Natural balanced rock wonders among the future manned space powers

N/A

5. Mega-buildings among the future manned space powers

Tokyo Skytree (東京スカイツリー, Tōkyō Sukaitsurī, stylized TOKYO SKYTREE) is a broadcasting and observation tower in Sumida, Tokyo. It became the tallest structure in Japan in 2010 and reached its full height of 634 meters (2,080 ft) in March 2011, making it the tallest tower in the world, displacing the Canton Tower, and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa (829.8 m/2,722 ft).

3. TOKYO SKYTREE reached its full height of 634 meters in March 2011, making it the tallest tower in the world.

6. Artistic representation of space shuttles among the future manned space powers

TBD

7. State Leader's Body Weight And World Ranking

World leaders are chosen to be mediatic figures, watched by billions of commoners worldwide.

Therefore physical aspect is paramount. It is representative of a nation's health and status.

It showcases its economical, diplomatical, cultural influences as well as its scientifical strenght, techological level, and overall military might.

https://archive.vn/6qEsa/a1fca281c6b89d56af2c7c2249e12876db4be1e2.png ; https://archive.vn/6qEsa/d9223928a7422a33d21ecfc6a7d34806336254ce/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20201127173559/https://i.imgur.com/aIga3FC.png
1. 7th analysis through biometric filter. 2020.

8. Artistic Representation of Space Stations Among The Future Manned Space Powers

Warning from Space (宇宙人東京に現わる, Uchūjin Tokyo ni arawaru) (transl. Spacemen Appear in Tokyo) is a Japanese science fiction tokusatsu film released in January 1956 by Daiei, and was the first Japanese science fiction film to be produced in color.

https://archive.ph/WrI6f/b8817747151b40436e9835bb33a7596bac2996b9.jpg ; https://archive.ph/WrI6f/735e59f586407741447504f2722d3eac00b810f9/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210604231050/https://www.framerated.co.uk/frwpcontent/uploads/2020/10/warningspace07-1024x750.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210604231056/https://www.framerated.co.uk/warning-from-space-1956/ ; https://archive.ph/NNHWl
3. Warning from Space 1956.

9. Artistic Representation of The Man On the Moon Among The Future Manned Space Powers

Battle in Outer Space (宇宙大戦争, Uchū Daisensō, lit. The Great Space War) is a 1959 Japanese science fiction film produced by Toho Studios. Directed by Ishirō Honda and featuring special effects by Eiji Tsuburaya, the film starred Ryō Ikebe, Koreya Senda and Yoshio Tsuchiya.

The film was released theatrically in the United States in the summer of 1960 by Columbia Pictures.

https://archive.ph/Ei2vz/89cabcd79c6a071bdf5fcd39a58cbe8df709c1d0.jpg ; https://archive.ph/Ei2vz/44ac1a5fb0eba6c41a05934ab936bf1b1e721d7d/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210604225649/https://m.media-amazon.com/images/M/MV5BZmRiZmI5ZWEt[email protected]._V1_.jpg
3. Battle in Outer Space 1959.

10. Artistic Representation of Space Robot Among The Future Manned Space Powers

https://archive.vn/XZOES/30eb54579de5268490814f3a6d36c805168b6130.jpg ; https://archive.vn/XZOES/aa056c08b860a583020a121e7ada4d697a058be6/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210307231011/http://images.spaceref.com/news/2013/ookibo2.jpg ; http://spaceref.com/international-space-station/robot-astronaut-kirobo-and-commander-koichi-wakata-conduct-a-conversation-experiment-in-the-iss.html ; https://archive.vn/FE7kn
3. Robot Astronaut Kirobo and Commander Koichi Wakata Conduct a Conversation Experiment in the ISS. 2013.

3. Robot Astronaut Kirobo Takes Part in Conversation Experiment. 5m56s
Dec 19, 2013
On December 6, 2013, astronaut Koichi Wakata and robot astronaut Kirobo had a conversation on board the International Space Station (ISS).

3.Kirobo speaks first words in outer space 1m47s
Sep 9, 2013
The robot astronaut Kirobo has become the first robot to speak in outer space.
Kirobo's words reflected the importance of its mission:
"On August 21, 2013, a robot took one small step toward a brighter future for all."

11. Starships Among The Future Manned Space Powers

https://archive.ph/EokUR/b75554ed460c40d28c088c84f7291ab8068253d1.jpg ; https://archive.ph/EokUR/386f2650e67fc8d788f32fc9612d290761aac244/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210604222435/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/Ev0I8JtVEAAgyQR?format=jpg&name=large ; https://archive.vn/L3vIw ; https://archive.vn/L3vIw/44892dc131803b08559458bc4a1232d23ab91599/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210307135332/https://www.mext.go.jp/kaigisiryo/content/20210303-mxt_uchukai01-000013139_3.pdf ; https://archive.vn/pyalf
3. The Japanese Space Agency has just released plans of a fully reusable rocket for the 2040s. Design looks similar to a small Starship, very exciting. 6 Mar 2021.

12. VTVL Rockets Among The Future Manned Space Powers

https://archive.vn/K0QHP/4d842c766e3f0d3209d8441e9f3e69813707b26a.jpg ; https://archive.vn/K0QHP/04a3e5d1fceb4411f4f30c29b080ac160dd24c78/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210307135042/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/Ev0I8KCU8AIKRWk?format=jpg&name=large ; https://archive.vn/L3vIw
3. The Japanese Space Agency has just released plans of a fully reusable rocket for the 2040s. Mar 6, 2021.

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#### Soheil_Esy

##### Fazanavard فضانورد
Part 5

Japan In The Manned Space Race Part 2

Nearly all industrialized nations have at least some sort of manned space project, but only those with a green light, can proceed first.

Others will have to wait patiently for their turn.

PD AeroSpace

Japanese startup PD AeroSpace aims for commercial space travel in 2023

2018/09/04/

The startup PD AeroSpace Ltd. is developing a reusable spacecraft shaped like an airplane to carry paying customers into space by 2023.

The Nagoya-based company plans to offer space flights up to an altitude of 110 kilometers using the craft, which is capable of carrying six passengers and two pilots, at a price of ¥17 million ($153,000) per person. Currently, 11 workers at a plant in Hekinan, Aichi Prefecture, are working to fly an unmanned test vehicle up to an altitude of 100 km. “We would like to open a new space era (with the spacecraft),” said Shuji Ogawa, the 48-year-old president of PD AeroSpace. Last summer, the company successfully carried out a combustion experiment with the spacecraft’s pulse detonation engine, which can switch from air-breathing mode, where propulsion is achieved through pushing out hot exhaust gases, to rocket mode. According to the company’s plan, the spaceship will change its mode of combustion at an altitude of 15 km to ascend further, and passengers will be able to enjoy a near weightless experience for about five minutes while staring down at Earth. By launching a reusable spacecraft from airport runways, PD AeroSpace aims to keep costs down compared to using nonreusable rockets. Ogawa founded the startup in 2007 after being inspired by Scaled Composites LLC’s SpaceShipOne, which in 2004 became the first privately owned piloted vehicle to reach space. It won the$10 million Ansari X Prize, established to encourage entrepreneurship in space travel.

The space tourism industry at one point lost steam due to a series of accidents and a reluctance to invest in the field, but it appears to have regained momentum, with U.S. companies taking the lead.

Backed by investments from firms such as ANA Holdings Inc., as well as support from some 40 expert volunteer workers, PD AeroSpace is trying to overcome numerous challenges, including the procurement of funds.

“Space has the power to attract people,” Ogawa said.

High-end tourists from China targeted as Japan’s new ‘space port’ prepares for lift-off

Published: 5:38pm, 14 Sep, 2020

• Spacecraft developer PD AeroSpace is developing an airport on an island in Okinawa prefecture for space tourism by 2025

• The company is eyeing wealthy adventure seekers, particularly those from China, for initial flights that are expected to cost around US$141,000 Japan ’s first passenger “space port” is to be built on the tiny Okinawan island of Miyako Shimojishima, with spacecraft developer PD AeroSpace aiming to be aloft by 2025 as it seeks to attract adventurous travellers from across the region – particularly well-heeled thrillseekers from China. The company, based in the city of Nagoya in central Japan, has reached an agreement with the Okinawa prefectural government to develop the island’s little-used airport for use as the departure point for its state-of-the-art space plane, as well as landing facilities for returning tourists. “We plan to target people from across Asia and we believe there are a lot of people who would very much like to go into space if only the price of a flight was lower,” said Ryo Ojima from PD Aerospace’s business development department. He confirmed the company was “targeting people from China” for its flights, but said they would take anyone who wants to experience space. Ojima said initial flights would last for about 90 minutes and reach an altitude of 100km, which the World Air Sports Federation has set as the boundary between the atmosphere and space. For five minutes, passengers will be able to experience the weightless conditions of astronauts, while the journey will provide stunning views of the Earth. “We are aiming to reach 100km because that is what is known as the Karman line, or the ‘gateway to the universe’,” he said. The cost of a flight is expected to be around Ұ15 million (US$141,000), Ojima told This Week in Asia, or around 70 per cent of the cost proposed by similar space tourism ventures.

“We selected Miyako Shimojishima for four primary reasons,” he said. “It has a 3,000-metre runway, it has a training airspace that is aligned north-south, it faces the ocean and the local authorities have been cooperative.”

Tourism-dependent Okinawa has been hit by the Covid-19 pandemic, with people working in the local travel industry describing the outlook as “grim”. As such, experts say, the possibility of space tourism in the next five years could provide a much-needed boost for the prefecture.

“Okinawa has felt the loss of the China market due to the coronavirus, so it makes complete sense that they would go after wealthy travellers from the big cities – Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong – as their passengers,” said Ashley Harvey, general manager of destination management firm Aviareps Japan.

“All those cities have huge populations, large numbers of people with money to spend and easy access to Okinawa. These are people who have already travelled overseas and have seen many of the major attractions around the world, so they are going to be looking for something completely different, something that none of their friends have tried before.

“An experience like this would be something special and something that enough people would want to try to make it a viable business.”

In its first year of operations, PD AeroSpace expects to take around 100 people into orbit, but it plans to operate 200 flights a year – carrying 1,000 passengers – by 2030. It has big ambitions beyond these initial flights and ultimately intends to be involved in the construction of an orbiting space hotel.

The company has tied up with All Nippon Airways (ANA) and domestic travel giant HIS, with a spokeswoman for HIS pointing out that a number of legal revisions need to be passed before space travel can become a reality.

“We believe there will be strong demand, initially from Japan but very quickly after that from across the entire region [once that hurdle has been overcome],” she said.

Miyako Shimojishima, which is nearly 300km from Okinawa’s main island, covers an area of just 10 sq km and is connected to neighbouring islands by bridges.

Its airport was built in 1979 to serve as Japan’s sole pilot training facility for jet aircraft, with ANA and Japan Airlines
using the facility until it became significantly cheaper to train pilots on simulators. The airfield is presently used for tourist flights.

“It’s a very appealing and dream-inspiring proposal,” Okinawa prefecture vice governor Kiichiro Jahana said of PD AeroSpace’s plan. “The space industry is a field with high future prospects and one that continues to grow around the world … This will have a positive ripple effect across the entire prefecture.”

https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/economics/article/3101478/high-end-tourists-china-targeted-japans-new-space-port-prepares

https://archive.is/xRy0n/7fe1d311fbdd510abd58f61eabab0d4e5e0a93ed.png ; https://archive.is/xRy0n/df90d5daf40970542127a154b15fee6672efd4b4/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914172645/https://i.imgur.com/4z2Wjov.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
1. Pegasus vs New Sheppard & SpaceShip Two.

https://archive.vn/Ph47O/bc8f15784841f17c23601a66b657da329b3ac7bc.png ; https://archive.vn/Ph47O/dd873947322e38838c0593634ab74b328dd4deb0/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914172907/https://i.imgur.com/Y9cCHqt.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
2. Switchable Dual Combustion Mode engine.

https://archive.vn/BRXMq/7bc2cfeaed3c945e3c4b67a602af97d07a6e67da.png ; https://archive.vn/BRXMq/0530ce68e0b8bdb8f3d017a2443a904684bc88f8/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173146/https://i.imgur.com/N3JR5mo.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
3. From Jet Mode To Rocket Mode.

https://archive.vn/4s1W8/261dba9ecd863297e63c32b4e7a8a9e1f86b8b2f.png ; https://archive.vn/4s1W8/18cf4c37b99029ba2f7ce6283dbb81048031e5ed/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173543/https://i.imgur.com/Bka8GaX.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
4. PDAS-X06 & PDAS-X07 Demonstrators.

https://archive.vn/S8eC8/1febc34264ff647637d589719cd7f75e09eba8e9.png ; https://archive.vn/S8eC8/bac0598d7365caec07a2230392ca4320bd21ade2/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173805/https://i.imgur.com/ebJ3MMI.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
5. Pegasus Suborbital Spaceplane.

https://archive.vn/Z78DD/47b4a9e6decd2caf1e508d70f339041fea20023b.png ; https://archive.vn/Z78DD/36ec61082e65e71bc59eac8ef3f6852f18682636/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173958/https://i.imgur.com/W5zx8PI.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
6. Suborbital space flight profile.

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#### Soheil_Esy

##### Fazanavard فضانورد
Part 6

Thailand's Manned Space Program

Today, we will use all 12 filters defined by Soheil to parse the manned space program of Thailand:

1. Green Light And Historical Milestones As Prerequisites For A Manned Suborbital Flight V1.0

History of Siamese rocketry

Rocketry was brought from Tai Lue people who migrated from their Xishuangbanna Kingdom, in today's Yunnan province.

https://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/บุญบั้งไฟ

Meaning that South East Asians have developed rockets centuries before most other nations, unlocking a possible space launchers under the Siamese General Prayuth Chan O Cha, soon to be unveiled, and thereafter to a possible manned flight!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdP8MBTsMM8 ; ประมวลคลิปบั้งไฟแสนบั้งไฟล้าน ณ บ้านท่าโพธิ์ แขวงสะหวันนะเขต สปป.ลาว 12/05/2562 ; May 16, 2019
1. Example of Siamese Bang Fai gigantic traditional rocket.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Xtj4TD6M4g ; อภิมหาตะไลยักษ์กุดหว้า ปี 2559 KUTWA ROCKET FESTIVAL 2016 ; May 22, 2016
2. Example of Siamese traditional gigantic rotating flying disk rocket.

2. Space Sci-fi movie development as rule of thumb

May 20, 2015

Produced on a budget of just B1,000, 26-year-old amateur filmmaker Nipan Chawcharernporn’s debut sci-fi short, The Deepest, rocked social media when it reached more than 300,000 views in just three days on YouTube (youtu.be/uk8kvGGUKow). Here, he discusses the sci-fi genre and Thai audiences, and how he managed to pull off that expensive look on such a tiny budget.

http://web.archive.org/web/20200815013514/https://bk.asia-city.com/city-living/news/nipan-chawcharernporn-thai-sci-fi-film-the-deepest
https://archive.vn/llPEZ

Video

The Deepest:ลึกสุดห้วง (by Nipan) (22 min)
500,039 views•Mar 25, 2015

https://archive.is/ZHKOG/b36ef59cdaf52963ab18d7674b620d8473010695.jpg ; https://archive.is/ZHKOG/f4f4ef3c830f86ddd8d5193fc388c00f9893c981/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210307125336/https://i.imgur.com/IS0xprV.jpg
3. The Deepest:ลึกสุดห้วง (2015)

https://archive.vn/dglXH/005f54a0c85a88f59a72aeb1df67c9c357110a4a.jpg ; https://archive.vn/dglXH/ed22fa515df9b03bf04a029d45cedb2b0264c19d/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210307125817/https://i.imgur.com/cuND8jZ.jpg
4. The Deepest:ลึกสุดห้วง (2015)

https://archive.vn/hqZ0t/164d3a02e1b3330f6af744db43f1d1bf9c7e09b9.jpg ; https://archive.vn/hqZ0t/5d1384c906f927f96f82b4b47a3234a894447052/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210307121622/https://i.imgur.com/NgSND2Z.jpg
5. The Deepest:ลึกสุดห้วง (2015)

3. Rare Earth Reserve among the future manned space powers

Like Myanmar, the total amount of Rare Earth Mineral reserve of Thailand is unknown.

But Thailand was credited as the 8th world producer by 26th May 2020, with:

Mine production: 1'800 metric tons (MT)

Thailand’s rare earths production increased to 1,800 MT in 2019 from 1,000 MT in 2018. Its rare earths reserves are not currently known, but the country remains a top 10 producer outside of China.

https://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/critical-metals-investing/rare-earth-investing/rare-earth-producing-countries/
http://web.archive.org/web/20210226015752/https://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/critical-metals-investing/rare-earth-investing/rare-earth-producing-countries/
https://archive.vn/JDBWd
https://archive.is/XNFdW

4. Natural balanced rock wonders among the future manned space powers

Ang Thong National Marine Park is a pristine archipelago of 42 islands in the Gulf of Thailand. It features towering limestone mountains, thick jungle, white-sand beaches, waterfalls and hidden coves and lakes to explore. The protected area of more than 100 sq km of land and sea has a rich biodiversity.

6. Ang Thong National Marine Park.

A 20-metre tall islet called Ko Ta Pu or Ko Tapu is a limestone karst tower and part of Ao Phang Nga National Park.
Phang Nga Bay lies between southern Thailand's mainland and Phuket Island. Also known as Ao Phang Nga National Park, it's characterized by limestone cliffs and rock formations, as well as mangrove forests and small islands.

https://archive.vn/F3YcZ/15c92e1f120c52c1fecd7e0275866c816bedb714.jpg ; https://archive.vn/F3YcZ/4c201ee8e2b20bf8ef780463e80c183c2a6e78b3/scr.png ; https://archive.is/Cb3ez/ed25aae8a7d9161e863a61d806f1b325c1eed437.jpg ; https://archive.is/Cb3ez/bfa468a82531763cbc52cc1409758eee643ea33e/scr.png ; https://web.archive.org/web/20210303062050/https://dea474tt7pa43.cloudfront.net/3e73757c-30f4-4a96-8528-b43dd22e4c83-desktop.jpg ; https://web.archive.org/web/20200404222715/https://ca-times.brightspotcdn.com/dims4/default/e3d976f/2147483647/strip/true/crop/2048x1365+0+0/resize/840x560!/quality/90/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fcalifornia-times-brightspot.s3.amazonaws.com%2F3e%2F46%2F2248c26b1e5606442db4aa842c1e%2Fla-1543607179-xuie7xfxoa-snap-image
7. A 20-metre tall islet called Ko Ta Pu or Ko Tapu is a limestone karst tower and part of Ao Phang Nga National Park.

5. Mega-buildings among the future manned space powers

The Great Buddha of Thailand, also known as The Big Buddha, The Big Buddha of Thailand, Phra Buddha Maha Nawamin, and Mahaminh Sakayamunee Visejchaicharn, was in November 2018 the tallest statue in Thailand, the second tallest statue in Southeast Asia, and the ninth-tallest in the world.
Located in the Wat Muang temple in Ang Thong Province, this statue stands 92 m high, and is 63 m wide. Construction commenced in 1990, and was completed in 2008.

https://archive.vn/b3Y02/106ac82d143821db54e17a74eff429dca62c2596.jpg ; https://archive.vn/b3Y02/b28f2227ec7873c5b4b83f8efbb9988638ee0d4d/scr.png ; https://web.archive.org/web/20210303064322/http://www.dhammajak.net/board/files/paragraph_paragraph_paragraphparagraph_12_239.jpg
8. The Great Buddha of Thailand.

6. Artistic representation of space shuttles among the future manned space powers V1.0.

https://archive.vn/R6oFt/ba15f842d5ff8cea70c1a55d5574eaa51fa1b12e.jpg ; https://archive.vn/R6oFt/05a65888d1f34e512a38ebc995ffd54c3213f214/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210307125737/https://i.imgur.com/tIhAu0a.jpg
9. The Deepest:ลึกสุดห้วง (2015)

https://archive.vn/VenHy/ce6f85804f972c571922be051aa912aca4f09402.jpg ; https://archive.vn/VenHy/f592b983b92d73e16e8e3011df73825aa5e0226f/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210307125752/https://i.imgur.com/w5zjIRZ.jpg
10. The Deepest:ลึกสุดห้วง (2015)

7. State Leader's Body Weight And World Ranking

The current body mass of Prayuth Chan O Cha, the leader of Thailand is not published, only the height is known as 1.82 meter, putting it in pole position.

8. Artistic Representation of Space Stations Among The Future Manned Space Powers

N/A

9. Artistic Representation of The Man On the Moon Among The Future Manned Space Powers

https://archive.vn/152uZ/d980d4c0d54da330edf1a2b6443dcc7639d20b21.jpg ; https://archive.vn/152uZ/7ef71f4914051946af3ddcc3e44a602607328bc8/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210306115934/https://i.imgur.com/eb2MVbH.jpg
11. Thailand's Mu Space Lunar base.

https://archive.vn/rqDPZ/811fe735b6f5c02a4752a7cedc1985650fea3b95.jpg ; https://archive.vn/rqDPZ/6894b330397c016c2a8399dd6ac480b9f000b68f/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210306120124/https://i.imgur.com/ULKITRD.jpg
12. Thailand's Mu Space astronaut and robot (in black) on the moon.

10. Artistic Representation of Space Robot Among The Future Manned Space Powers

https://archive.vn/zWVLC/9ce00db8e0b5b0fbc5ec25b713be3025cec80905.jpg ; https://archive.vn/zWVLC/1b45ddc0a752b0465d393a64b6e9b72d361ff046/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210306195610/https://pbs.twimg.com/media/Dnvw2AFVsAAL4Sp?format=jpg&name=900x900 ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210306195758/https://twitter.com/JamesWorldSpace/status/1043692554846318597 ; https://archive.vn/xySFS
13. mu Space Corp CommercialAstronaut + two Black and White Robots. 22 Sep 2018.

11. Starships Among The Future Manned Space Powers

TBD

12. VTVL Rockets Among The Future Manned Space Powers

TBD

#### Soheil_Esy

##### Fazanavard فضانورد
Part 7

As correctly predicted back in 2019, Thailand joining Myanmar and Turkey, now also revealing its ambitions to be part of the global space race!

Thailand's Manned Space Program Part 2

We are moving forward into a new era by planning to develop space technologies for future space travel. Generally, a majority might view that building a spaceship or spacecraft is a futuristic idea and sometimes it feels surreal.
However, building a spaceship with a complexity of technologies is one of the challenging tasks that a company wants to achieve, it might take 1-2 years to complete, mu Space is the first and only company who steps into this path and strives to make things happen. If we don’t start it now, then when?

Objectives of Thailand's Mu Space

• Thailand's first Space Launch Center
• Thailand's first space launcher
• Thailand's Regional GPS
• Thailand's Orbital Data Center

‘Mu Space’ to push Thai space industry, planning to build its first spaceship in 2021

Dec 29, 2020

2020 saw an uptick in activity from the space economy due to the Thai government pushing for space-activity-related legislation and creating mechanisms to promote and support both the government and the private sector to develop the space industry together, which is one of the target industries in the new S-curve that will increase Thailand’s investment capacity and its role in developing the space industry and ultimately add value to the Thai economy.

The private sector also plays an important role in developing the economy and stimulating investment in the space industry. This year, mu Space and Advanced Technology Public Company Limited (mu Space Corp.), a 3-year-old private satellite and space technologies firm, was able to attract investors from several industries and businesses to invest in the space industry, such as TOT Public Company Limited, executives from Dow Chemical Group, SCG, as well as the current investors, including Nice Apparel Group -- a global leading athlete apparel maker --, B.Grimm Group, Majuven Fund, private business group, and a group of other minor investors i.e. executives from the UCLA Foundation. The value of ‘mu Space’ has increased to more than \$100 million. through a Series B fundraising.

‘mu Space’ CEO, Varayuth Yenbamroong, on December 25th, 2020, stated during a soft opening event of the first spaceship factory in Thailand that “the fund recently raised will be used to quickly build a large-scale factory to produce and assemble the first spaceship of Thailand, along with satellite parts and commercial spaceships for domestic affairs, communications, national security such as creating a locally made GPS (Global Positioning System), robotic testing, autonomous system testing for unmanned vehicles to be used on the Moon mission. The factory will be equipped with the 5G communication system. It will also serve as a platform to develop Space IDC technologies, with a plan to test them in the first quarter of 2021.

“Space IDC” or Space Internet Data Center services is a project jointly created by ‘mu Space’ Corp. and TOT Public Company Limited, that aims at providing a data center service with a server being located in outer space.

“mu Space’ is planning to build 11 gateway stations initially in Bangkok to operate the upcoming Low Earth Orbit Satellite (LEO), while preparing to propose up to 8 projects from US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the beginning of 2021. ‘mu Space’ has collected a lot of experience and has grown significantly from submitting 7 space technology development projects with its Tipping Point Solicitation Project passing the first hearing. There is a good chance that ‘mu Space’ will be awarded with the project contract.” said Varayuth.

Despite the presence of COVID-19 pandemic, ‘mu Space’ is planning to hire about 100 positions, beginning with the first 50 positions beginning in Q1 2021 to create skilled laborers, in line with the national space technology and industry development plan. This is a good news for Thailand to have private space companies and the new generation who have the determination to develop technologies and innovations to tangibly push the local space industry to become Thailand’s New Economy.

http://web.archive.org/web/20201229120524/https://www.satellite-evolution.com/post/mu-space-to-push-thai-space-industry-planning-to-build-its-first-spaceship-in-2021
https://archive.vn/Mz5Pp

Launch Site

December 9, 2020 - 2:15 p.m

The Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency or, in brief, GISTDA, is a Thai space agency and space research organisation.

GISTDA looks forward to Thai future as a rocket launch base to invest in "spacecraft port".

Another interesting issue for this industry is the availability of a "spaceport" as a base for launching rockets into space. Which if Thailand has our own spaceport Which in addition to generating direct income There was also an industry that followed, not just in the same industry. But can also cross the industry to other industries such as the tourism industry as well

http://web.archive.org/web/20210302110630/https://www.prachachat.net/economy/news-571217
https://archive.vn/VDyoc

Video

Recap - mu Space Post launch event 2020 (with Subtitle, 38m 30s)
409 views •Nov 22, 2020

mu Space unveil space technology 2020 (Thai language, 12m 41s)
Sep 29, 2020

Screen capture images

https://archive.is/odcDF/7cdccb5753d630e24118760739324308d265e75f.jpg ; https://archive.is/odcDF/1aef2a231735894a35971a96709a1da824d34505/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210302101522/https://i.imgur.com/SXj9cJj.jpg
1. Orbital Data Center: used for computation, computing ans information storage.

2. Thailand planned constellation of Spaceships for Orbital Data Center.

https://archive.vn/HhPUv/38f1b3d15fb10ee5641a09a8b0d39af7b9cd4a9b.jpg ; https://archive.vn/HhPUv/921bdf621a1798f19ba74c404aa34a268e9ac1b1/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210302101642/https://i.imgur.com/Oc2cUfc.jpg
3. LEO Orbital Data Center and Lunar Orbital Data Center.

http://web.archive.org/web/20210302101723/https://i.imgur.com/8yj1OVY.jpg

4. Spaceship's schematics.

https://archive.vn/0mtbl/2c4e31f272ddeef29a70162ea9453b91ee29d46f.jpg ; https://archive.vn/0mtbl/14d6679fbf22881b54822098a5ebd72a7a3761a6/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210302101758/https://i.imgur.com/Ggd4kxl.jpg
5. Spaceship design and prototype.

https://archive.vn/yk5Gf/c2994cc57e28a10db1dc410b9fcb8f5bdd120d29.jpg ; https://archive.vn/yk5Gf/f5df79c3fc8596fc5b7ca10f0e946a30148c711d/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210302101850/https://i.imgur.com/YKLs7V2.jpg
6. Spaceship automated robotic factory.

https://archive.vn/1838n/9350b2237784d6bbb0df7c50245a953e5051c888.jpg ; https://archive.vn/1838n/5173539552c61e4e67e364a11395b7a31e0ae82e/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210302101936/https://i.imgur.com/nP99JE4.jpg
7. Spaceship Vs New Sheppard et al. size comparison.

https://archive.vn/GGnLN/fe1d0e7290d89c7a4129057070cc59c80791770c.jpg ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210302102008/https://i.imgur.com/WRZwsex.jpg
8. CGI rendering of Spaceship.

https://archive.vn/15xcb/210f2355242ffc4ce97fb8870111c9b19716aa19.jpg ; https://archive.vn/15xcb/3bd39178dbd3f41fe8fe814a3fcf1cc9ae248648/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20210302104318/https://i.imgur.com/JxkJviu.jpg
9. Competitors of the 4th Space Race, as of March 2021.

https://archive.vn/XJG8z/fa0ebace672320b6c5ce6207458159b5710c4d28.jpg ; https://archive.vn/XJG8z/c0d25c4d5c05dd23288921185e2e675dd9079ef7/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20190109152605/https://www.muspacecorp.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/OO-mission-spacesuit.jpg ;
10. Mu Space conceptual spacesuit. 2019.

http://web.archive.org/web/20201203114051/https://muspacecorp.com/spaceship/
http://web.archive.org/web/20210228072023/https://muspacecorp.com/spaceship/
https://archive.vn/QNj4g#selection-437.5-439.303
http://web.archive.org/web/20201229120524/https://www.satellite-evolution.com/post/mu-space-to-push-thai-space-industry-planning-to-build-its-first-spaceship-in-2021

#### Soheil_Esy

##### Fazanavard فضانورد
Part 8

Operations hit, but Isro still hopes for December launch

Chethan Kumar / TNN / May 29, 2021, 08:46 IST

BENGALURU: Restrictions and lockdowns across multiple states, especially in Karnataka and Kerala, due to the second Covid wave have hit operations at Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro).

The space agency had multiple missions planned for this year: Three earth observation satellites — one for ocean studies, one remote sensing satellite, a commercial launch, one navigation satellite, a science satellite to study the Sun (Aditya-L1), two SSLV (small satellite launch vehicle) missions and the Gaganyaan uncrewed mission.

While Aditya will not happen this year, lockdowns will impact timelines of the other missions. However, Isro, which has dedicated most of its resources to ensure the uncrewed mission takes off this year as announced in the Union budget, is still hopeful of a December launch.

Sources in Isro told TOI that even before the lockdown they were working alternative days to ensure physical distancing, but the lockdowns have resulted in a work-fromhome scenario, which enables only a small percentage of the work to be done.

“It [lockdown] certainly will have an impact. While most of the lab and floor work including systems testing are affected, we have been working remotely on design, review and other processes. Work has not stopped fully. However, industries we partner with have stopped work,” Isro chairman K Sivan said.

On whether this will delay the uncrewed mission, he said, it can only be known once the lockdown is lifted.

“It will be premature to say anything now. We are looking at launching the uncrewed mission by December this year. If industries can turn around and deliver the systems and parts we need, it will be possible. Our partners have done this in the past, but we can only review the situation later,” Sivan added.

As reported by TOI earlier, the space agency in April had decided that it may even go ahead with the uncrewed mission without the indigenous data relay satellite and some aspects of the human rating of the systems, even as it works to ensure they are ready much ahead of the launch of humans.

Even the Gaganyaan Advisory Council (GAC) that met in the last week of March had advised Isro not to delay the uncrewed mission.

The data relay satellites — Indian Data Relay Satellite System (IDRSS) — are in the 2,000kg class that will need the GSLV for their launch into GEO. As per Isro’s plans, Gaganyaan will be the first beneficiary of the IDRSS, which will be later also used for space-to-space tracking and communication of all space assets.

http://web.archive.org/web/20210603155741/https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bengaluru/operations-hit-but-isro-still-hopes-for-december-launch/articleshow/83055370.cms
https://archive.is/5XXPm#selection-2405.0-2402.25

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