News Poland's presence in the space

Piorun

Well-known member
Joined
Dec 3, 2013
Messages
109
Reaction score
208
Points
58
Location
Poland
This thread is intended to focus on news about space flight research currently conducted in Poland, as well as on the development of domestic rocket and satellite projects.


Historical timeline:

1852/1853
— Ignacy Łukasiewicz, the inventor of kerosene lamp, distills kerosene — an essential propellant of future space launchers (in its perfected form known as RP-1).

1883, April 5th — Two scientists of the Jagiellonian University — Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski, manage to produce liquid oxygen (LOX) for the first time in the history. LOX later becomes one of the most important oxidizers in astronautics.

1903 — A Polish-Russian academician, Konstanty Ciołkowski ("Konstantin Tsiolkovsky" in Russian) publishes his pioneering theoretical work titled "Exploration of Outer Space by Means of Rocket Devices", which lays the groundwork for future space rocket designs. According to Ciołkowski’s work, composition of certain chemicals shall be sufficient to accelerate a spacecraft to the orbital speed (ca. 8 km/s).

1918 — A Polish catholic friar (and later — a saint martyr of the catholic church), father Maksymilian M. Kolbe during his studies in Italy publishes a proposal of the "Etereoplan" — an early concept of an interplanetary spacecraft. Kolbe presented his work with computations and drawings in the Italian magazine Scienza per Tutti. Despite his German ancestry (his father was a polonized German), Kolbe dies in 1941 as a prisoner of the Auschwitz Nazi German Death Camp, as he volunteered to take place of another prisoner, a former Polish POW, designated to execution.

1932 — Ary Sternfeld, a Polish Jewish engineer finishes his monograph titled "Introduction to Cosmonautics”, coining the term "cosmonautics". Two years later, Sternfeld invents the bi-ellpitic transfer.

May — July 1944 — Polish resistance movement recovers remnants of a Nazi German V2 missile and delivers them to the United Kingdom for further examination. It should be noted that during the second world war, hundreds of forced laborers from Poland, as well as Czechoslovakia, France and the USSR worked on the assembly of the Rocket Baron’s missiles. Many of them sabotaged von Braun's tools of destruction, in result paying the highest price as a violent punishment by the occupants.

1950s—1960s — Numerous technological tests of various rocket designs (incl. e.g. RD-42, RM-2, "RASKO” series).

1961—1973 — With the Meteor Program, Poland becomes the sixth country in the world conducting atmospheric research with domestically made strato- and mesospheric sounding rockets.

1970, October 7th — The 3rd Meteor 2K sounding rocket achieves the Kármán Line.

1970s — Participation in the Interkosmos Program (esp. in satellite researches and sounding rocketry).

1973, April 19th — Launch of the Polish-Soviet scientific satellite Interkosmos 9 (a.k.a. Kopernik 500), for commemoration of the 500th anniversary of birth of Mikołaj Kopernik (better known in the rest of the world under his latinised name "Nicolaus Copernicus").

1970s—1980s — Participation in the USSR-led Bion Program.

1978 June 26th — July 5th — Cosmonaut Mirosław Hermaszewski together with Soviet Belorussian cosmonaut Pyotr Klimuk aboard of Soyuz 30 visits Salyut 6 space station. Poland becomes the 4th country of the world, whose citizen flew into space.

1980s — The Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences provides a part of scientific payload for the Soviet Fobos probes.

1990s — Commencement of cooperation with Western countries in space exploration of the Solar System. The Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences provides its first contribution to a Western space mission (temperature and thermal conductivity sensor for the Huygens lander and designs layouts of electronic systems for sensors measuring physical properties of Titan). After Cassini-Huygens, contributions take place in relation to other deep space missions follow (including, but not limited to, InSight and JUICE).

2012, November 19th — Accession to the European Space Agency.

2014, September 26th — Establishment of the Polish Space Agency (POLSA).

2017 — Commencement of flight trials of the ILR-33 suborbital sounding rocket. As of 2023, development of the ILR-33 is still ongoing.

June 2022 — May 2023 — Concept works on the first national lunar mission take place. According to the statement of the Director of POLSA on summarising the aforementioned feasibility study, preparations to the lunar mission shall commence in 2023.

2023, July 21st — The Perun commercial suborbital launcher performs its final test prior to crossing the Kármán line scheduled for autumn 2023.
 
Last edited:

Piorun

Well-known member
Joined
Dec 3, 2013
Messages
109
Reaction score
208
Points
58
Location
Poland
August 9th, 2023: Today, the Ministry of Development and Technology has announced that a Polish astronaut will participate in a 2024 mission to the ISS. The mission is a result of an agreement between the Republic of Poland, ESA and Axiom Space. Most likely, the astronaut to be selected for the mission will be Mr. Sławosz Uznański — an engineer at CERN, who had been qualified as an ESA reserve astronaut in autumn 2022 (official biography here). However at this moment the final designation of the astronaut is awaiting for confirmation by the other sides of the agreement. The astronaut will conduct scientific and technological experiments to be provided by the nation’s industries, as well as educational activities.

News on the Polish Radio site here

 

Piorun

Well-known member
Joined
Dec 3, 2013
Messages
109
Reaction score
208
Points
58
Location
Poland
Also, Boris Chertok was born in (what is now) Poland.
A.N. Yablontsev, one of Russian pilots selected to the Buran program, too.

On the other hand, there was also a certain number of Polish Americans in the space, for example J. Pawelczyk (STS-90).
 

MaxBuzz

Well-known member
Joined
Sep 19, 2016
Messages
1,420
Reaction score
2,137
Points
128
Location
Kursk
Sergei Korolev was born in Zhytomyr, in all documents he indicated that his nationality was Russian

Vladimir Chelomey was born in the Polish city of Siedlce
62cc65b5efda0193a39200a4-preview.jpg1591822_original.jpgzemlya_ballisticheskie_raketi_zemlya-zemlya_mezhkontinentalnie_ballisticheskie_raketi_ur-200_8...jpgzemlya_ballisticheskie_raketi_zemlya-zemlya_mezhkontinentalnie_ballisticheskie_raketi_ur-500_8...jpgfig7-2.jpg
 
Last edited:

Urwumpe

Not funny anymore
Addon Developer
Donator
Joined
Feb 6, 2008
Messages
37,745
Reaction score
2,488
Points
203
Location
Wolfsburg
Preferred Pronouns
Sire
Sergei Korolev was born in Zhytomyr, in all documents he indicated that his nationality was Russian

Korolev identified himself as Ukrainian early in life (For example, when he entered university in Kyiv in 1925), so no, not all documents said he was Russian, at least before Gulag. His diploma thesis in 1930 was mentored by none less than Andrei Tupolev - with whom a shared the same fate during the Great Terror: В круге первом.
 

Piorun

Well-known member
Joined
Dec 3, 2013
Messages
109
Reaction score
208
Points
58
Location
Poland
Sooo... Poland can into space after all?
It depends naturally on how we define the ability of going into space ;)
  1. Crossing of the Kármán line — This has already been done more than 50 years ago, and in the coming months or even weeks it will be doable again (the Perun, under development by the company SpaceForest).
  2. Orbital rockets — That idea had been under consideration as early as in the 1960s by the Meteor Program team, but economical and political limitations of that era prevented such plans from realisation. The ongoing projects (ILR-33, Perun, PTR-1) give an impression of acquiring know-how regarding the construction of larger and more complex rockets through evolution, which may eventually lead to construction of a lightweight launch vehicle.
  3. Construction of satellites — The country’s companies are already capable of designing and manufacturing satellites entirely in Poland. The first designs were basically cubesats (Pw-Sat, Kraksat, Światowid), more recent ones are going to be somehow larger and more complex (the astronomical UVSat and the military PIAST).
  4. Deep space missions — The first steps have been already done: (a) the country’s scientists and engineers has got decades of experience in designing and manufacturing scientific payloads for deep space missions (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn’s Titan); (b) Our industry has already mastered the construction of complete satellites and therefore construction of a probe seems to be feasible in a near future; (c) POLSA and the country's spacecraft manufacturers have already discussed the issue, with the intention of realizing a national lunar mission by the end of this decade (5-6 years according to POLSA director's estimates).
Vladimir Chelomey was born in the Polish city of Siedlce
This year I drove through the city without the awareness that Chelomey had been born there.
Offtopic: Currently I’m working on Chelomey's UR-100 which represents the basic version (8K84), so one day or another we will see it in Orbiter:
UR-100.png
 

Piorun

Well-known member
Joined
Dec 3, 2013
Messages
109
Reaction score
208
Points
58
Location
Poland
On August 17th, the Military Institute of Armament Technology conducted a test firing of a scaled-down technology demonstrator for the Three Stage Suborbital Rocket (TRS - Trójstopniowa Rakieta Suborbitalna) in the Central Air Force Training Area in Ustka. The TRS is under development by a state-owned consortium consisting of the Military Aviation Works No. 1, the Military Institute of Armament Technology and the company Special Production Works "Gamrat" Ltd. (ZPS „Gamrat” Sp. z o.o.). The purpose of the Triple Stage Suborbital Rocket will be to launch research- and peaceful payloads above the Kármán line.

https://www.facebook.com/PolskaAgen...sdnuUuXQDNpvbfPuHjbEioeroEssg5RNhdp6c6VCnZMKl

The TRS is expected to perform its first suborbital flight within this year, regardless of other designs being concurrently developed in Poland.
 

Piorun

Well-known member
Joined
Dec 3, 2013
Messages
109
Reaction score
208
Points
58
Location
Poland
March 21, 2024

”EagleEye”, the first satellite utilising the HyperSat platform under development by the company Creotech Instruments S.A. has been announced to be launched within 2024.


EagleEye is a 50 kg Earth imaging satellite. It will orbit the Earth on a LEO, reaching altitudes of approx. 300-350 km in order to provide resolution of the imagery up to 1 meter.

The launch is expected to took place in 2024, with a Falcon 9 launcher by SpaceX. The satellite is currently undergoing final examination relation to its integration with the launch vehicle.

EagleEye has been developed by a consortium that includes:
  • Creotech Instruments S.A. (the leader of the consortium, the space bus design and manufacturing);
  • Scanway S.A. (optical instrumentation);
  • Space Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences (scientific partner, the telescope’s computer, environmental trials).

Further, the HyperSat platform will find inter alia following applications:
  • the spacecraft bus for a future lunar orbiter detecting natural resources on the Moon, to be launched by the European Space Agency;
  • technology demonstrator ordered by the ESA for space refuelling operations as a part of the ESA Future Space Transportation Systems program - currently under development by the German company OHB System AG (with the launch scheduled for the second half of 2026);
  • PIAST military reconnaissance satellite constellation for the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland (with the launch scheduled for 2025).

The manufacturer plans further development of HyperSat, which will result in substantially heavier (200 kg) and technically more advanced satellites within upcoming years.
 

Urwumpe

Not funny anymore
Addon Developer
Donator
Joined
Feb 6, 2008
Messages
37,745
Reaction score
2,488
Points
203
Location
Wolfsburg
Preferred Pronouns
Sire
Does it already exist in the Orbiter multiverse?
 

Piorun

Well-known member
Joined
Dec 3, 2013
Messages
109
Reaction score
208
Points
58
Location
Poland
April 12, 2024

Intuition-1 and AI-augmented hyperpectral imagery


The Intuition-1 satellite developed by the company KP Labs Sp. z o.o. (from Gliwice, Silesian Voivodeship) has delivered to the Earth the first land imagery since its launch, which took place on November 11, 2023 with a Falcon 9 launch vehicle (Transporter-9 mission).

Intuition-1.png
Image: KP Labs


Unlike traditional RGB imagery that uses only 3 wide color channels (red, green, blue), Intuition-1 obtains the imagery with so called hyperspectral technology. The electromagnetic sensor with which Intuition-1 is equipped is able to distinguish as many as 192 narrow channels in total, including wavelengths invisible to the human eye. This ability allows the satellite to detect and identify various minerals, types of vegetation, environmental pollution, and ground-based structures easier than conventional satellites of comparable size.

The imagery was processed already on the orbit with the use of AI by the satellite itself. Data processing on board Intuition-1 reduces the time and resources required to analyze satellite imagery, therefore the obtained data can reach analysts faster.

The hyperspectral technology used in Intuition-1 may be used in a variety of applications, such as mineral exploration, forestry, agriculture, and environmental protection.
 
Top